[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 12, Issue 1 (January-Fabruary 2018) ::
IJT 2018, 12(1): 13-18 Back to browse issues page
The Protective Role of Starch on Modulating Toxic Effects of Citrullus Colocynthis on Rat Liver and Intestine
Neda Eskandarzade , Shahrzad Azizi , Ali Hashemian , Saeedeh Talebipour , Hamid Reza Rouzegar , Arian Pour Amin , Milad Yaghobi , Reza Soleimani
Department of Basic Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. , eskandarzade@uk.ac.ir
Abstract:   (504 Views)
Background: Despite using Citrullus colocynthis on treatment of various diseases, serious gastrointestinal disorders like bleeding are reported. In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), administering equal weights of starch with this plant is suggested to produce more tolerable preparations from it. Hence, we assessed histopathological changes in rat liver and intestine after using starch as corrective agent.
Methods: We designed three experiments in Veterinary Medicine School of Shahid Bahonar University in Kerman, Iran in 2016. The procedure was applied in 2016 for 15 days. In the first experiment, group No. 2 and 3 received single daily dose of alcoholic pulp extract of C. colocynthis at 300 and 600 mg/kg extract consecutively. In the second experiment, group No. 4 and 5 received 300 and 600 mg/kg extract plus the same amount of starch consecutively. In the third experiment, group No. 6 and 7 received extract at 300 and 600 mg/kg plus the three times weight of starch consecutively. The live rats were euthanized and their liver and intestine were removed for histopathology examination. The samples were stained with hematoxyline-eosin (H&E).
Results: Rats in all of the groups died from bleeding and diarrhea except for group No.6 that showed no symptoms seen in other rats. Microscopic examination of their intestine showed no histopathological lesions or other degenerative changes of the epithelium.
Conclusion: Clearly further works in modern phytotherapy will be required to delineate the role of starch in reducing C. colocynthis toxicity. Consumption of adequate weight of starch with the toxic dose of C. colocynthis make it safe for digestive system but could not prevent necrotic changes in the liver.
Keywords: Citrullus Colocynthis, Histopathology, Phytotherapy, Starch
Full-Text [PDF 466 kb]   (233 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special
References
1. Ghahraman A. Colored Flora of Iran. Iran: Forest &Ranglands Research Institute Press; 2000.
2. Birouni A. Al-seydana. Persian translated by Mozaffarzadeh B. Tehran, Iran: Persian Academy Press, 2005.
3. Ibn Sina. Al Qanun Fi al-Tibb. Persian translated by Sharafkandi A. Tehran, Iran: Soroush Press; 2005.
4. Dallak M. In vivo, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10(48):9898-903.
5. Mukherjee A, Patil SD. Effects of alkaloid rich extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on Artemia salina and human cancerous [MCF-7 and HEPG-2] cells. J PharmaSci Tech 2012;1(2):15–9.
6. Hussain AI, Rathore HA, Sattar MZA, Chatha SAS, Ahmad F, Ahmad A, Johns EJ. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of various extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) from the Pakistani flora. Ind Crops Prod 2013;45:416-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.01.002]
7. Huseini HF, Darvishzadeh F, Heshmat R, Jafariazar Z, Raza M, Larijani B. The clinical investigation of Citrullus colocynthis [L.] Schrad fruit in treatment of type II diabetic patients: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2009;23(8):1186-9. [DOI:10.1002/ptr.2754]
8. Rahbar AR, Nabipour I. The hypolipidemic effect of Citrullus colocynthis on patients with hyperlipidemia. Pak J Biol Sci 2010;13(24):1202-7. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2010.1202.1207]
9. Torkey HM, Abou-Yousef HM, Azeiz A, Farid HEA. Insecticidal effect of cucurbitacin E glycoside isolated from Citrullus colocynthis against Aphis craccivora. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2009;3(4):4060-6.
10. Ali AA, Alian MA, Elmahi HA. Phytochemical analysis of some chemical metabolites of Colocynth plant [Citrullus colocynthis L.] and its activities as antimicrobial and antiplasmidial. J Basic Appl Sci Res 2013;3(5):228-36.
11. Jayaraman R, Shivakumar A, Anitha T, Joshi VD, Palei NN. Antidiabetic effect of petroleum ether extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits against streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. Rom J Biol Plant Biol 2009;54(2):127-34.
12. Najafi S, Sanadgol N, Nejad BS, Beiragi MA, Sanadgol E. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Citrullus colocynthis [Linn.] schrad against Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Plants Res 2010;4(22):2321-5.
13. Salama HMH. Alkaloids and flavonoids from the air dried aerial parts of Citrullus colocynthis. J Med Plants Res 2012;6(38):5150-5. [DOI:10.5897/JMPR12.406]
14. Oryan A, Hashemnia M, Hamidi AR, Mohammadalipour A. Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2014;4(2): 125-30. [DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60328-5]
15. Dallak M, Bashir N, Abbas M, Elessa R, Haidara M, Khalil M, AL-Khateeb MA. Concomitant Down Regulation of Glycolytic Enzymes, Upregulation of Gluconeogenic Enzymes and Potential Hepato-Nephro-Protective Effects Following the Chronic Administration of the Hypoglycemic, Insulinotropic Citrullus colocynthis Pulp Extract. Am J Biochem Biotech 2009;5(4):153-161. [DOI:10.3844/ajbbsp.2009.153.161]
16. Nmila R, Gross R, Rchid H, Roye M, Manteghetti M, Petit P, et al. Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts. Planta Med 2000;66(5):418-23. [DOI:10.1055/s-2000-8586]
17. Aghili MH. Makhzan-al-Advia. Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Iran, 2009.
18. Canadian Council on Animal Care. Canadian Council on Animal Care guidelines. Ottawa. Canada. 1984. Available from: http://www. ccac.ca.
19. Tannin-Spitz TS, Grossman S, Dovrat HE, Gottlieb M, Bergman M. Growth inhibitory activity of cucurbitacin glucosides isolated from Citrullus colocynthis on human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2007;73(1):56-67. [DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.09.012]
20. Hussain AI, Rathore HA, Sattar MZA, Chatha SHAS, Sarker SD, Gilani AH. Citrullus colocynthis [L.] Schrad [bitter apple fruit]: A review of its phytochemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and nutritional potential. ‎J Ethnopharmacol 2014;155(1):54-66. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.011]
21. Dehghani F, Panjehshahin MR. The toxic effect of alcoholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis on rat liver. Iranian J Pharmacol Ther 2006;5(2):117–9.
22. Wang X, Yuan Y, Yue T. The application of starch-based ingredients in flavor encapsulation. Starch 2015;67(3-4):225-36. [DOI:10.1002/star.201400163]
23. Shafaei H, Esmaeili A, Solaeymanirad J, Delazar A, Behjati M. Citrullus colocynthis as a medicinal or poisonous plant: A revised fact. J Med Plants Res 2012;6(35): 4922-7. [DOI:10.5897/JMPR11.264]
24. Shafaei H, Solaeymanirad J, Mahdavi R, Ostad Rahimi A, Rezazadeh H, Argani H, et al. The potentiating effects of citrullus colocynthis extract on immune system. Med J Tabriz Univ Med Sci 2007;29(2):77-82.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA code



XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Eskandarzade N, Azizi S, Hashemian A, Talebipour S, Rouzegar H R, Pour Amin A, et al . The Protective Role of Starch on Modulating Toxic Effects of Citrullus Colocynthis on Rat Liver and Intestine. IJT. 2018; 12 (1) :13-18
URL: http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-606-en.html


Volume 12, Issue 1 (January-Fabruary 2018) Back to browse issues page
مجله سم شناسی و مسمومیتهای ایران Iranian Journal of Toxicology
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.23 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 3752