Write your message
Volume 18, Issue 1 (January 2024)                   IJT 2024, 18(1): 14-20 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: 00650


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Amedu N, Adeleye R, Abdur-Rahman H, Abolarin P, Omotoso G. Impact of Sodium Benzoate on Motor Coordination, Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Layer, and Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats’ Brain. IJT 2024; 18 (1) :14-20
URL: http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-1281-en.html
1- Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Adeleke University, PMB 250, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria , amedunath11@gmail.com
2- Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Adeleke University, PMB 250, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria
3- Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chrisland University, PMB 2131, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
4- Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
Abstract:   (119 Views)
Background: We investigated the sodium benzoate effects on motor coordination, cerebellar purkinje cells, and oxidative stress in Wistar rats’ brain.
Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six each. Group 1 given 0.5ml distilled water; Group 2 given 100 mg/kg sodium benzoate (NaB); and Group 3given 300 mg/kg NaB. The NaB solution was given orally for 28 days. Hanging wire and footprint tests were performed. Upon sacrifice, the cerebellar tissue samples were collected, and malondialdehyde assay was performed. Histological analyses of the cerebellar sections stained with H&E, cresyl fast violet and glial fibrillary acidic protein were performed. The Purkinje cells were also counted in the cerebellar samples.
Results: On the hanging wire tests, control rats and those given NaB100mg/kg groups took longer time to fall off, compared to those given NaB300mg/kg (P˂0.05). Footprint tests revealed changes in the animals’ stance and stride patterns. The base width, stride length, and overlap length showed no significant differences across the three groups. The NaB at 300mg/kg adversely affected the cerebellar Purkinje cells, reduced the numbers, and caused distortions. The nissl substances were stained lightly and the GFAP expression indicated gliosis, particularly in rats given NaB300mg/kg. The oxidative stress indicators increased after NaB treatment at 300mg/kg but not at 100mg/kg.
Conclusion: NaB at 300mg/kg altered the cerebellar Purkinje cells, increased the oxidative stress, and affected the motor coordination. The group treated with NaB100mg/kg exhibited fewer adverse effects than those with NaB300mg/kg.
Full-Text [PDF 909 kb]   (62 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (33 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General

References
1. Wright M, Skaggs W, Årup Nielsen F. The Cerebellum. WikiJournal of Medicine. 2016;3(1). [DOI:10.15347/wjm/2016.001]
2. Haines DE, Dietrichs E. The cerebellum - structure and connections. Handb Clin Neurol. 2012;103:3-36. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-51892-7.00001-2] [PMID]
3. Shepherd GM. The synaptic organization of the brain. New York: Oxford university press; 2003. [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159561.001.1]
4. Manto M. Toxic agents causing cerebellar ataxias. Handb Clin Neurol. 2012;103:201-13. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-51892-7.00012-7] [PMID]
5. Alekseeva N, McGee J, Kelley RE, Maghzi AH, Gonzalez-Toledo E, Minagar A. Toxic-metabolic, nutritional, and medicinal-induced disorders of cerebellum. Neurol Clin. 2014;32(4):901-11. [DOI:10.1016/j.ncl.2014.07.001] [PMID]
6. Manto M, Perrotta G. Toxic-induced cerebellar syndrome: from the fetal period to the elderly. Handb Clin Neurol. 2018;155:333-52. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-64189-2.00022-6] [PMID]
7. Bruna GOL, Thais ACC, Lígia ACC. Food additives and their health effects: A review on preservative sodium benzoate. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2018;17(10):306-10. [DOI:10.5897/AJB2017.16321]
8. Walczak-Nowicka LJ, Herbet M. Sodium Benzoate-Harmfulness and Potential Use in Therapies for Disorders Related to the Nervous System: A Review. Nutrients. 2022;14(7). [DOI:10.3390/nu14071497] [PMID] []
9. Zulfiqar A, Riaz H, Muhammad R, Tariq I, Sabir SM, Ali SW, et al. Toxicological evaluation of sodium benzoate on hematological and serological parameters of wistar rats. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2018;20(11):2417-22.
10. Saatci C, Erdem Y, Bayramov R, Akalın H, Tascioglu N, Ozkul Y. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 2016;30(6):1179-83. [DOI:10.1080/13102818.2016.1224979]
11. Piper JD, Piper PW. Benzoate and Sorbate Salts: A Systematic Review of the Potential Hazards of These Invaluable Preservatives and the Expanding Spectrum of Clinical Uses for Sodium Benzoate. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2017;16(5):868-80. [DOI:10.1111/1541-4337.12284] [PMID]
12. Aartsma-Rus A, van Putten M. Assessing functional performance in the mdx mouse model. J Vis Exp. 2014(85). [DOI:10.3791/51303] [PMID] []
13. Amedu NO, Omotoso GO. Influence of Vitexin on ataxia-like condition initiated by lead exposure in mice. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 2020;12(4):305-13. [DOI:10.1007/s13530-020-00041-x]
14. Carter RJ, Morton J, Dunnett SB. Motor coordination and balance in rodents. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2001;Chapter 8:Unit 8 12. [DOI:10.1002/0471142301.ns0812s15] [PMID]
15. Gage GJ, Kipke DR, Shain W. Whole animal perfusion fixation for rodents. J Vis Exp. 2012(65). [DOI:10.3791/3564]
16. Bancroft JD, Layton C. The hematoxylins and eosin. Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques2019. p. 126-38. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-7020-6864-5.00010-4]
17. Wolfe AJ, Brubaker L. Urobiome updates: advances in urinary microbiome research. Nat Rev Urol. 2019;16(2):73-4. [DOI:10.1038/s41585-018-0127-5] [PMID] []
18. Redondo J, Kemp K, Hares K, Rice C, Scolding N, Wilkins A. Purkinje Cell Pathology and Loss in Multiple Sclerosis Cerebellum. Brain Pathol. 2015;25(6):692-700. [DOI:10.1111/bpa.12230] [PMID] []
19. Paul CA, Beltz B, Berger-Sweeney J. The nissl stain: a stain for cell bodies in brain sections. CSH Protoc. 2008;2008:pdb prot4805. [DOI:10.1101/pdb.prot4805] [PMID]
20. Yang Z, Wang KK. Glial fibrillary acidic protein: from intermediate filament assembly and gliosis to neurobiomarker. Trends Neurosci. 2015;38(6):364-74. [DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2015.04.003] [PMID] []
21. Gawel S, Wardas M, Niedworok E, Wardas P. [Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker]. Wiad Lek. 2004;57(9-10):453-5.
22. Singh Z, Karthigesu IP, Singh P, Rupinder K. Use of malondialdehyde as a biomarker for assessing oxidative stress in different disease pathologies: a review. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2014;43(Supple 3):7-16.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Toxicology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb