Write your message
Volume 12, Issue 1 (January-Fabruary 2018)                   IJT 2018, 12(1): 27-31 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Khadem-Rezaiyan M, Moallem S R, Afshari R. Epidemiology of Snake, Spider and Scorpion Envenomation in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran (2004-2011). IJT. 2018; 12 (1) :27-31
URL: http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-620-en.html
1- Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2- Medical Student, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3- PhD of Clinical Toxicology, Addiction Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. , afshariR@mums.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2888 Views)
Backgrounds: Envenomation is common in Asia including Iran that induces morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of cases with snake, spider and scorpion bites.
Methods: In this cross-sectional design, epidemiologic data of admitted cases to the Toxicology Department of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran were analyzed across a 7-yr period, from 2004 to 2011. SPSS was used for data analysis.
Results: This study reports 686 admissions due to animal envenomation with an incidence rate of 2.9 per 100000. Mean (SD, min-max) age of admitted patients was 30 (19, 1-90) yr, and 471 (69%) were male. Snakebite (n, percentage, annual incidence) (299, 44%, 1.3 per 100000) and spider bite (188, 27%, 0.8 per 100000) and scorpion sting (126, 18.4%, 0.5 per 100000) were most frequent cases. Overall, case fatality rate was 0.09 per 100000 which were due to scorpion and unknown bite. No cases of snakebites died in this period. The highest age-specific incidence rate was 4.6 per 100000 and related to 10-20 yr of age.
Conclusion: Animal envenomation is frequent in this area and a matter of health concern. While deaths related to snake bite are no longer reported-presumably due to using effective anti-venom - managing unknown and scorpion bites need to be addressed. Envenomation was not overtly an age-specific event in this province.
Full-Text [PDF 339 kb]   (874 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General

1. Alavi SM, Alavi L. Epidemiology of animal bites and stings in Khuzestan, Iran, 1997–2006. J Infect Public Heal 2008;1(1):51-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2008.08.004]
2. Dehghani R, Fathi B, Shahi MP, Jazayeri M. Ten years of snakebites in Iran. Toxicon 2014;90:291-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.08.063]
3. Jalali A, Rahim F. Epidemiological review of scorpion envenomation in Iran. Iran J Pharm Res 2014;13:743-56.
4. Krau SD. Bites and stings: epidemiology and treatment. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2013;25:143-50 [DOI:10.1016/j.ccell.2013.02.008]
5. Sagheb MM, Sharifian M, Moini M, Salehi O. Clinical features of snake bite in southern Iran. Trop Doct 2011;41:236-7. [DOI:10.1258/td.2011.110147]
6. Afshari R. Arthropods: Bite like a spider, sting like a scorpion. Nature 2016;537(7619):167-8. [DOI:10.1038/537167e]
7. Monzavi SM, Salarian AA, Khoshdel AR, Dadpour B, Afshari R. Effectiveness of A Clinical Protocol Implemented To Standardize Snakebite Management In Iran: Initial Evaluation. Wilderness Environ Med 2015;26(2):115-23. [DOI:10.1016/j.wem.2014.09.011]
8. Warrell DA. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2012;26:207-23. [DOI:10.1016/j.idc.2012.03.006]
9. Afshari R, Majdzadeh R, Balai Mood M. Pattern of acute poisonings in Mashhad, Iran 1993–2000. J Clin Toxicol 2004;42(7):965-75. [DOI:10.1081/CLT-200042550]
10. Monzavi SM, Dadpour B, Afshari R. Snakebite Management in Iran: Devising A Protocol (Review Article). J Res Med Sci 2014;18(2):153-63.
11. Dadpour B, Shafahi A, Monzavi SM, Zavar A, Afshari R, Khoshdel AR. Snakebite prognostic factors: Leading factors of weak therapeutic response following snakebite envenomation. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2012;1(1):27-33.
12. Afshari R, Barazandeh-Ahmadabadi S, Zare G, Balali-Mood M. Spider bite induced clinical, paraclinical and electrocardiographic changes. Clin Toxicol 2008; 46:5:408-9.
13. Monzavi SM, Afshari R. Development of Latrodectus Envenomation Severity Score (LESS); a Severity Index for Widow Spider Bite: Initial Step. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3(1):18-22.
14. Khadem-Rezaiyan M, Afshari R. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Northeast of Iran. J Forensic Leg Med 2016;41:1-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.jflm.2016.04.002]
15. Rezaiyan M, Afshari R. Epidemiology of Poisoning in Northeast of Iran (2004-2013). Int J Med Toxicol Forensic Med 2017;7:54-8.
16. Khadem-Rezaiyan M, Afshari R. Alcohol Intoxication: An Emerging Public Health Problem. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2017;6:1-5.
17. Afshari R, Khadem-Rezaiyan M, Balali-Mood M. Spider bite (latrodectism) in Mashhad, Iran. Hum Exp Toxicol 2009;28:697-702. [DOI:10.1177/0960327109350668]
18. Afshari R, Khadem-Rezaiyan M, Ebrahimi E, Moeew A, Balali-Mood M. Clinical, Paraclinical, and Electocardiographic Changes of Spider Bite in North East Iran, 2005–2006. EAPCCT Abstracts. Clin Toxicol 2007;45(4):333-90. [DOI:10.1080/15563650701284894]
19. Cesaretli Y, Ozkan O. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey. A Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:159-62. [DOI:10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60060-6]
20. Sezerino UM, Zannin M, Coelho LK, Gonçalves J, Grando M, Mattosinho SG, et al. A clinical and epidemiological study of Loxosceles spider envenoming in Santa Catarina, Brazil. T Roy Soc Trop Med H 1998;92(5):546-8. [DOI:10.1016/S0035-9203(98)90909-9]
21. Cristiano MP, Cardoso DC, Raymundo MS. Contextual analysis and epidemiology of spider bite in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil. T Roy Soc Trop Med H 2009;103:943-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.03.015]
22. Dehghani R, Fathi B. Scorpion sting in Iran: a review. Toxicon 2012;60:919-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.06.002]
23. Pipelzadeh MH, Jalali A, Taraz M, Pourabbas R, Zaremirakabadi A. An epidemiological and a clinical study on scorpionism by the Iranian scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus. Toxicon 2007;50:984-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2007.07.018]
24. Nicholson GM, Graudins A. Spiders of medical importance in the Asia–Pacific: Atracotoxin, latrotoxin and related spider neurotoxins. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2002;29:785-94. [DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1681.2002.03741.x]
25. Khadem Rezaiyan M, Jarahi L, Moharreri F, Afshari R, Motamedalshariati S, Okhravi N, et al. Epidemiology of Suicide Attempts in Khorasan Razavi Province, 2014-2015. IRJE 2017;13(2):128-135.
26. Isbister GK, Fan HW. Spider bite. Lancet 2011;378:2039-47. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62230-1]
27. Khadem Rezaiyan M, Dadgarmoghaddam M. Understanding the Concepts of Risk Communication: Today's Medical Community Need. J Mashhad Med Counc 2014;18(2):90-3.
28. Khadem-Rezaiyan M, Dadgarmoghaddam M, Sabbagh Gol A. Promoting Health Literacy Is A Necessary Action on the Outskirts Based on the Real Condition There. Electron Physician 2016;8(1):1817-23. [DOI:10.19082/1817]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Toxicology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb