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Volume 11, Issue 1 (January-Fabruary 2017)                   IJT 2017, 11(1): 19-25 | Back to browse issues page

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Egbe E R, Nsonwu-Anyanwu A C, Offor S J, Usoro C A O, Etukudo M H, Egbe D I. Element Content of Surface and Underground Water Sources around a Cement Factory Site in Calabar, Nigeria. IJT. 2017; 11 (1) :19-25
URL: http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-522-en.html
1- Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
2- Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. , austadechic@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (4439 Views)

Background: Cement production is associated with heavy metal emissions and environmental pollution by cement dust. The degree of contamination of drinking water sources by major and trace elements present in cement dust generated by united cement factory (UNICEM) is still uncertain. This study estimated the element content of ground and surface water samples (hand-dug wells, boreholes and streams) around the factory site to determine the impact of cement dust exposure on the water levels of these elements.

Methods: This study was conducted at UNICEM at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Drinking water samples (5 from each location) were collected from the cement factory quarry site camp, 3 surrounding communities and Calabar metropolis (45 km away from factory) serving as control. The lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganes (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) levels of samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD post hoc at P = 0.05.

Results: As and Pb content of samples from camp were above the WHO recommendations of 0.01mg/l and 0.01mg/l respectively. Chromium and cadmium content of all water samples were above and others below WHO recommendations. Water levels of Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ca and Si were significantly elevated (though below WHO recommendations) in camp than other locations (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Production of cement results in As, Pb, Cr and cd contamination of drinking water sources near the factory. Treatment of all drinking water sources is recommended before public use to avert deleterious health consequences.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: General

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