[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 11, Issue 2 (March-April 2017) ::
IJT 2017, 11(2): 1-6 Back to browse issues page
Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran
Azadeh Emami , Zahra Mousavi *, Vahid Ramezani , Shahram Shoeibi , Hossein Rastegar , Maryam Amirahmadi , Iman Emami
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS), Tehran, Iran. , moosavi.z@iaups.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1011 Views)

Background: Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health.

Methods: Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS).The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3) ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. The pesticide’s residue was analyzed in 50 pistachio samples obtained from different markets.

Results: Identified pesticides included fenitrothion, carbaryl and diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples) of the samples.

Conclusion: All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.

Keywords: Pesticide Residue, Pistachio, Risk Assessment, Strategic Crop
Full-Text [PDF 210 kb]   (850 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
References
1. Wilson C, Tisdell C. Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental, health and sustainability costs. Ecol Econ 2001;39(3):449-62. [DOI:10.1016/S0921-8009(01)00238-5]
2. Owens K, Feldman J, Kepner J. Wide range of diseases linked to pesticides. Pestic You 2010;30:13-21.
3. Oh B-Y. Assessment of pesticide residue for food safety and environment protection. Korean J Pesticide Sci 2000;4(4):1-11.
4. No E. 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 February 2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC. Off J L. 2005;70.
5. Federico D, Magdalena M, Mortaz M. A Critical Analysis of the Competitiveness of the Iranian Pistachio Industry'. Int J Business Social Sci 2011;2:31-8.
6. D'Evoli L, Lucarini M, Gabrielli P, Aguzzi A, Lombardi-Boccia G. Nutritional Value of Italian Pistachios from Bronte (Pistacia vera, L.), Their Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity. Food and Nutr Sci 2015;6(14):1267. [DOI:10.4236/fns.2015.614132]
7. Gentile C, Tesoriere L, Butera D, Fazzari M, Monastero M, Allegra M, et al. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components. J Agr Food Chem 2007;55(3):643-8. [DOI:10.1021/jf062533i]
8. Commission E. Commission Directive 2002/63/EC of 11 July 2002—establishing Community methods of sampling for the official control of pesticide residues in and on products of plant and animal origin and repealing Directive 79/700. EEC. 2002.
9. Gilbert-López B, García-Reyes JF, Molina-Díaz A. Sample treatment and determination of pesticide residues in fatty vegetable matrices: A review. Talanta 2009;79(2):109-28. [DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2009.04.022]
10. Anastassiades M, Lehotay SJ, Štajnbaher D, Schenck FJ. Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and "dispersive solid-phase extraction" for the determination of pesticide residues in produce. JAOAC int 2003;86(2):412-31.
11. Soboleva E, Rathor N, Mageto A, Ambrus A. Estimation of Significance of'Matrix-induced'Chromatographic Effects. Roy Soc Chem 2000;256:138-56.
12. Amirahmadi M, Shoeibi S, Abdollahi M, Rastegar H, Khosrokhavar R, Hamedani MP. Monitoring of some pesticides residue in consumed tea in Tehran market. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 2013;10(1):1. [DOI:10.1186/1735-2746-10-9]
13. Emami A, Rastegar H, Amirahmadi M, Shoeibi S, Mousavi Z. Multi-Residue Analysis of Pesticides in Pistachio Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Iran J Toxicol 2015;8(27).
14. Kim S-H, Choe W-J, Baik Y-K, Kim W-S. Monitoring of pesticide residues and risk assessment of agricultural products consumed in South Korea. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2008;37(11):1515-22. [DOI:10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.11.1515]
15. Valenzuela AI, Pico Y, Font G. Determination of five pesticide residues in oranges by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography to estimate daily intake of consumers. J AOAC Int 2001;84(3):901-9.
16. Commission CA. Codex maximum residue limits for pesticides. 2009.
17. Chun OK, Kang HG. Estimation of risks of pesticide exposure, by food intake, to Koreans. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41(8):1063-76. [DOI:10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00044-9]
18. Aikpokpodion P, Oduwole O, Adebiyi S. Appraisal of Pesticide Residues in Kola Nuts obtained from Selected Markets in South Western, Nigeria. J Sci Res Rep 2013;2(2):582-97.
19. Pandey P, Raizada R, Srivastava L. Level of organochlorine pesticide residues in dry fruit nuts. J Environ Biol 2010.
20. Norman KN, Leonard K. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of phosphine residues in stored products and processed foods. J Agr Food Chem 2000;48(9):4066-70. [DOI:10.1021/jf991221v]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

Write the security code in the box >



XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Emami A, Mousavi Z, Ramezani V, Shoeibi S, Rastegar H, Amirahmadi M et al . Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran. IJT. 2017; 11 (2) :1-6
URL: http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-536-en.html


Volume 11, Issue 2 (March-April 2017) Back to browse issues page
مجله سم شناسی و مسمومیتهای ایران Iranian Journal of Toxicology
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.051 seconds with 835 queries by yektaweb 3603