[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 11, Issue 5 (September-October 2017) ::
IJT 2017, 11(5): 53-59 Back to browse issues page
Nitrate Reduction in Canned Apples and Pears Using Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate (CaHPO4)
Parisa Ziarati * , Estatira Sepehr , Saeed Heidari , Maryam Moslehishad
PhD of Chemistry, Young Researchers & Elite Club, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. , ziarati.p@iaups.ac.ir
Abstract:   (612 Views)
Background: The aim of this study was to introduce a new and economical method for reduction of nitrate content in canned apples and pears.
Methods: The nitrate content was determined before and after treatment with CaHPO4 ranging from 0.01% to 0.1% using spectroscopic method in 2015 in Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran- Iran. The effect of treatment time at three different time points (30, 60, 90 min) was determined. Sensory evaluation was performed using five-point hedonic scales.
Results: Nitrate content in fresh fruit is significantly (P<0.05) lower than canned products; this may be explained by the effect of water for washing fruits during processing. The mean value of nitrate in canned apples were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the canned pears; this may be related to the type of fruits and its texture and composition. Nitrate content of canned apples and pears were decreased from 233.24±24.90 to 128.80±0.423 and 195.11±20.32 to 118.804±0.634 mg/kg, respectively. Different concentration of CaHPO4 did not influence sensory attributes of canned apples while overall acceptance of canned pears decreased only in 0.1% CaHPO4 (P<0.05). The most efficient time for treating by CaHPO4 was 90 min, but the most practical one is recommended 30 min. Addition of CaHPO4 did not change pH of canned samples.
Conclusion: Application of CaHPO4 is suggested as a novel, safe and economical method for removal of nitrate in canned products.
Keywords: CaHPO4, Canned Apples, Canned Pears, Food Safety, Removing Nitrate
Full-Text [PDF 437 kb]   (238 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
1. Ward MH. Too much of a good thing? Nitrate from nitrogen fertilizers and cancer. ‎Rev Environ Health 2009;24: 357-63. [DOI:10.1515/REVEH.2009.24.4.357]
2. Zhao X, Chen L, Zhang H. Nitrate and ammonia contaminations in drinking water and the affecting factors in Hailun, northeast China. J Environ Health 2013;75(7):28-34.
3. Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Cole JA, Benjamin N. Nitrate, bacteria and human health. ‎Nature Rev Microbiol 2004; 2: 593-602. [DOI:10.1038/nrmicro929]
4. Bednar C, Kies C. Nitrate and vitamin C from fruits and vegetables: Impact of intake variations on nitrate and nitrite excretions of humans. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2004; 45:71-80. [DOI:10.1007/BF01091231]
5. Ward MH, DeKok T M, Levallois P, Brender J, Gulis G, Nolan B T, VanDerslice J Workgroup report: Drinking-water nitrate and health-recent findings and research needs. Environ Health Perspect 2005; 1607-14. [DOI:10.1289/ehp.8043]
6. Authority E. Nitrate in vegetables: scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain. The EFSA 2008; 689: 1-79.
7. Choi BC. N-nitroso compounds and human cancer: a molecular epidemiologic approach. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:737-43. [DOI:10.1093/aje/121.5.737]
8. Kennedy D. Leafy vegetables and nitrates in nitrate and nitrite in food and water. Harwood Publishers, London. 2003.
9. Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90: 1-10. [DOI:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27131]
10. Santamaria P. Nitrate in vegetables: toxicity, content, intake and EC regulation. J Sci Food Agr 2006; 86: 10-7. [DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2351]
11. Ziarati P, Mohammad-Makki FM. Removal of Nitrate and Nitrite from Tomato Derived Products by Lemon Juice. BBRA 2015; 12(2):767-72 • [DOI:10.13005/bbra/2258]
12. Schuddeboom L. Nitrates and nitrites in foodstuffs. Council of Europe 1993; 23: 385-90.
13. Tabatabaee J, Nazari-e-Deljo M, Rostami R, Azarmi F, Fazilat F, Pahnaei S. Nitrate concentration evaluation of leafy, fruit bearing and tuberous vegetables in Tabriz. In: Proceeding of 4th Conference of Farming Sciences. 2005; 11-3.
14. Kirovska-Cigulevska O. Determination of nitrates in food products. Balikesir Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri En-stitüsü Dergisi 2002;4:70-3.
15. Sušin J, Kmecl V, Gregorčič A. A survey of nitrate and nitrite content of fruit and vegetables grown in Slovenia during 1996–2002. Food Addit Contam 2006; 23(4): 385-390. [DOI:10.1080/02652030600573715]
16. Ameh BA, Gernah DI, Obioha O, Ekuli G K. Production, Quality Evaluation and Sensory Acceptability of Mixed Fruit Juice from Pawpaw and Lime. Food Nutr Sci 2015; 6: 532-3. [DOI:10.4236/fns.2015.65055]
17. Chambers B, Chambers E, Bowers JA, Craig JA. Sensory detection and population thresholds for sodium tripolyphosphate in cooked ground turkey patties. J Food Sci 1991; 56: 200-9. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb08012.x]
18. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th ed. Arlington, VA: AOAC.2002.
19. Susin J, Kmecl V, Gregorcic A. A survey of nitrate and nitrite content of fruit and vegetables grown in Slovenia during 1996-2002. Food Addit Contam 2006 ; 23(4):385-90. [DOI:10.1080/02652030600573715]
20. Anjana SU, Iqbal M. Nitrate accumulation in plants, factors affecting the process, and human health implications. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 2007; 27: 45-57. [DOI:10.1051/agro:2006021]
21. Tahmasi A, Ziarati P. Histamnie and Chemical Composition of Canned and Frozen Green Pea (Pisum sativum). OJC 2015; 9(2):739-49. [DOI:10.13005/ojc/310250]
22. Tas AC. Monetite (CaHPO4) synthesis in ethanol at room temperature. J Am Ceram Soc 2009; 92: 2907-12. [DOI:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2009.03351.x]
23. Mohammadi S, Ziarati P. Nitrate and Nitrite Content in Commercially-available Fruit Juice Packaged Products. JCPR 2016; 8(6):335-41.
24. Maga, J. A., Types of food additives, in Food Additive Toxicology, Maga, J. A. and Tu, A. T., Eds., Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1995, 1.
25. Sundaralingam T, Gnanavelrajah N. Phytoremediation potential of selected plants for Nitrate and Phosphorus from ground water. Int J Phytoremediation 2014; 16: 275-84. [DOI:10.1080/15226514.2013.773279]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

Write the security code in the box >

XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ziarati P, Sepehr E, Heidari S, Moslehishad M. Nitrate Reduction in Canned Apples and Pears Using Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate (CaHPO4). IJT. 2017; 11 (5) :53-59
URL: http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-577-en.html

Volume 11, Issue 5 (September-October 2017) Back to browse issues page
مجله سم شناسی و مسمومیتهای ایران Iranian Journal of Toxicology
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3638